NASA measured the Expansion Rate of Universe

NASA measured the Expansion Rate of Universe

The change in the value of Hubble Constant gives a brand new expansion rate of the universe.

Our universe consists of a variety of bits and pieces we classify as planets, stars, meteors, and celestial objects. These are the puzzle pieces that fit together to form a universe. However, how did the universe generate? The universe came into existence as a singularity. This particular singularity was dense, had an intense amount of heat and was infinitesimally small. About 13.7 billion years ago, that scorching hot singularity exploded and started to expand. The eruption that took place was actually the birth of the universe. Later on, this phenomenon was recognized as the Big Bang Theory.

From the moment of the big bang, the universe had been involved in an ongoing cycle of expansion. Right from the beginning when it all started scientists presented their statistics about the expansion rate. The first measurement was taken by the European Space Agency’s Planck satellite that mapped the cosmic microwave background. Through the Planck satellite, the rate of expansion measured was 67 kilometers per second per megaparsec, that is 3.3 million light years but this was just the beginning.

In 1920, an astronomer named Edwin P. Hubble confirmed that the universe has been constantly expanding since its beginning. Hubble was recognized for his contribution and the term Hubble Constant came into existence. This term reflected the rate at which our universe is stretching apart. Years later after Hubble’s statement, a newly improved theory floated above the surface. In 1990, a group of astronomers discovered that the somewhat constant expansion rate of the universe was, in fact, not applicable now. It became common knowledge that expansion is accelerating and speeding up as the time is going by.

The expansion rate has always been a hard subject as is has constantly been a difficult task to pinpoint the exact age and the size of the universe. Upon research, it was determined by NASA that the universe is expanding 5 to 9 percent rapidly than they have previously calculated. One of the reasons that this discovery made sense was that the enigmatic parts of the universe such as dark energy, dark matter, and dark radiation didn’t emit any light which in result would add up to the expansion as a whole.

NASA has always been looking for the answer and has been appraising its knowledge about the universe’s expansion. A team was compiled to attain the latest facts about this subject. Arriving on the result of unparalleled accuracy, the rate of expansion had been reduced to the uncertainty of 2.4 percent. Making it the most advanced discovery yet. As the universe intensifies, other galaxies are moving further away as a result.

You may wonder, how can expansion be measured? Well, there are numerous variables present in the universe, which may help in finding an answer to this question. The team led by the astronomer Adam Riess progressed in finding accuracy by developing innovative techniques that improved the exactitude of distance measurements to faraway galaxies. The team started to locate galaxies with certain guidelines in mind. The galaxies that were on the list must contain both ‘Type La Supernovae’ and Cepheid stars. Cepheid stars pulsate at such a rate that resembles its true brightness, which can further be put in comparison with the brightness of the earth. This comparison helped in the determination of the distance. Similarly, type la supernovae is another astronomy based benchmark. This is categorized as exploding stars that have the ability to shine bright and to illuminate enough that they can be located at astonishingly long distances.

By measuring the brightness of both stars and their respective distances, the team was able to conclude the formula of expansion rate. It helped them to determine how fast the universe was expanding with time. The upgraded Hubble constant value became 45.5 miles per second per megaparsec (a megaparsec is a value that equals 3.26 million light years). This value is proving to be a game changer for the astronomical world. What this means is that in billions of years forthcoming the map of the universe would be a lot different. With a value such as this one, the distance between the cosmic objects will be twice as much in the next 9.8 billion years.

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